How artists have dealt with the ideas behind the philosophy of math and the golden rectangle.
The golden ratio is imagined to be found in nature as well as a number of art objects. This episode of Post-Modern Times looks at the actual correlation between aesthetic preferences and the formula. There have been a number of physiological studies that have tried to understand the why and even if people are attracted to certain ratios.
Nautilus Shell and the ratio.
The Elements of Dynamic Symmetry is a classic work dealing with the subject of mathematical composition.
Other artists that undoubtedly used the ratio include Le Corbussier, Mondrian, Dali, and many Renaissance painters and architects.